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Animal Detail ViewՄանրամասն` նրանց մասին

28.02.2012

Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)


Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla

Family: Cervidae

Subfamily: Cervinae

Genus: Cervus

Species: C. nippon

Description 

The size of sika deer varies greatly depending of the subspecies. The head-body length ranges from 105 to 170 cm, the shoulder height- 65 to 110 cm, the tail length from 10 to 20 cm, and the body-weight from 25 to 120 kg and more. Also the colour of the coat is variable, from blackish to yellowish-brown, and mottled with more or less clearly visible white spots arranged in seven or eight rows on the upper sides of the back.

Range and Habitat

Sika deer are found in the temperate and subtropical forests of eastern Asia, preferring areas with dense understory, and where snowfall does not exceed 10–20 cm. They tend to forage in patchy clearings of forests. Introduced populations are found in areas with similar habitats to their native ranges, including Western and Central Europe, Eastern United States, and New Zealand.

Behavior

The sika deer can be active throughout the day. Seasonal migration is known to occur in mountainous areas, such as Japan, with winter ranges being up to 700 metres lower in elevation than summer ranges. Lifestyles vary between individuals, with some occurring alone while others are found in single-sex groups. Large herds will gather in autumn and winter. The sika deer is a highly vocal species, with over 10 individual sounds, ranging from soft whistles to loud screams. Sika males are territorial and keep harems of females during the rut, which peaks from early September through October, but may last well into the winter months.

Diet

A sika deer's diet can include any of the following: marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, bamboo, ground ferns, poison ivy, soy beans, and corn depending on environmental conditions. In other words, these animals are highly adaptable and can be either grazers or browsers in response to the situation at hand.

Reproduction

Both sexes reach reproductive maturity at 16-18 months. Sika deer breed in the fall (September and October), and births of single offspring occur in May and June after a gestation period of approximately 30 weeks. The newborn young weighs about 4.5-7.0 kg and is nursed from 1 of its mother's 4 mammae for up to 10 months on an increasingly fatty milk (contains approximately 13% fat at the inception of the lactation period and 30% fat at its conclusion). The birth of calves usually takes place in forested areas or open fields, but small outlying patches of cover may be used in some cases. Female sika deer care for their young for up to a year after birth.

Conservation Status

The species listed in the IUCN Red List and evaluated as Least Concern.

 

 



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