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Animal Detail ViewՄանրամասն` նրանց մասին

28.02.2012

Feral goat (Capra hircus)


Scientific classification

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Subphylum: Vertebrata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactylia

Family: Bovidae

Genus: Capra

Species: Capra hircus

Description 

Because of its long history of domestication, there are many different breeds of C. hircus. Different breeds can have many different attributes. Typically, adults weigh 45 kg and be 64 cm tall. C. hircus is 1150 to 1700 mm in length. However, weight can vary between 9 and 113 kg and height can vary between 26 and 107 cm in different breeds. Capra hircus is sexually dimorphic. Males have a beard, horns, a rank odor, and are generally larger than the females. The odor stems from sex glands. The horns are hollow, and grow either scimitar or corkscrew. The hair is generally straight, however some breeds have a wool undercoat. Coat color varies, and can be black, white, red, and brown. Color patterns include solid color, spotted, striped, blended shades, and facial stripes. The nose can be either straight or convex. European breeds have erect ears and Indian breeds do not.

Range and Habitat

Capra hircus, most likely descended from C. aegagrus which is from Central Asia. Capra hircus is a domesticated animal and has been raised in almost all habitats. Goats do require grass for grazing, but can thrive in areas of thin growth that would not support other grazers such as sheep or cows. For sleeping, C. hircus prefers a bedded area of at least 15 feet. Goats require exercise; optimally a goat should have at least 25 square feet per animal for this. Due to a well-developed herding instinct, C. hircus prefers to be in groups of 2 or more. As a domesticated species, C. hircus is very susceptible to predation. Therefore, it is best situated in a fenced in area. Feral groups are found usually in rugged mountain country, rocky crags, and alpine meadows.

Behavior

They are social animals and prefer to be in the presence of other goats. The size of captive herds is controlled by humans. Herd sizes in the wild tend to be 5 to 20 members, but can be as high as 100. The herds can contain only males, only females and young, or a mix of both. Goats are diurnal, and spend most of the day grazing. Because they live under human control, most goats can be described as sedentary. There is a rank structure in the herds. The males butt heads for hierarchy status.

Diet

Goats can choose what grasses they will eat and generally avoid grass covered in feces. In captivity they eat roughage all year round. When the season is warm they can graze, but during the winter they are fed by humans. Farmers feed males and females different quantities and different types of foods on farms. C. hircus is a ruminant and eats grasses and shrubs.

Reproduction

The breeding season for C. hircus is from late summer to early winter. The female estrus cycle is 18 days long. However, in the tropics certain breeds reproduce all year long. By manipulating the amount of light goats are exposed to during the day, the estrus cycle can be artificially induced. Twins are extremely common to this species, otherwise 1 or 3 offspring is the typical brood size. Gestation differs between breeds, but is between 145 and 152 days. The young are born precocious and able to walk and follow the mother just hours after birth. About 10 months after birth the young are weaned from their mother’s milk and graze independently. Females become reproductively mature around the age of 1 year, whereas males reach reproductive maturity around 5 months of age. Mothers of C. hircus nurse their young for 10 months after birth.

Conservation Status

Not listed  in the IUCN Red List. 



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