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Animal Detail ViewՄանրամասն` նրանց մասին

28.02.2012

Llama (Lama glama)


Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla

Family: Camelidae

Genus: Lama

Species: L. glama

Description 

Llamas, like other camelids have long necks, limbs, rounded muzzles, protruding lower incisors, and a cleft upper lip. South American camelids, including llamas, alpacas, and guanacos do not have humps as do Old World camelids. Llamas are the largest member of this group. They have long shaggy pelage which varies greatly in color. A common coat pattern is reddish brown fur with mottled patches of white or yellow. Llamas are fairly large mammals standing about 1.21 m at the shoulder and about 1.2 m in length from head to tail. Adult L. glama can weigh from 130 to 155 kg. Unlike some other Artiodactyla, L. glama has a two toed foot with a thick leathery pad on each foot’s sole.

Range and Habitat

Llamas have a native range all along the Andes mountains, but are not found in the wild. Lama glama can be found commercially throughout North America, Europe and Australia. An indispensable pack animal, herds of L. glama are maintained extensively by the native human populations in Argentina, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia and Peru.

The Andean highlands, especially the Altiplano of southeast Peru and western Bolivia, is the natural habitat of L. glama. Llamas are known to inhabit elevations no greater than 4,000 meters above sea level.

Behavior

Llamas are gregarious and highly social, living in groups of up to 20 individuals. Llama groups consist of about 6 breeding females and their offspring from the current year. Llamas are also known to use communally shared locations (latrines) for feces, possibly as a territorial demarcation. Like other camelids, llamas are very vocal, using a variety of low and yammering calls. Llamas make especially distinct vocalizations in the presence of predators such as canids to warn other group members of danger. Llamas are aggressive towards predators and have been reported charging, kicking, biting, and spitting at those they deem a threat.

Diet

Llamas browse on low shrubs, lichens, and mountain vegetation. Llamas make use of native shrubs and grasses. Llamas tend to live in very dry climates and get most of the moisture from their food. Camelids consume about 2 to 3 gallons of water, and 1.8% of their body weight in dry food (grass, hay) per day. Llamas have three stomachs and are ruminants. When kept as domestic animals llamas adapt well to the same diet as sheep and goats.

Reproduction

Llamas are polygynous. Male llamas gather a harem of about 6 females into a designated territorial region and then aggressively drive away all other male llamas of breeding age who come into the area. Llamas are able to interbreed with other members of the genus Lama to produce fertile offspring. Although L. glama does not have an estrus cycle, this species tends to mate in late summer and early fall. Gestation takes about 360 days, and the female llama gives birth to one cria (infant llama) almost every year. Crias are able to run about an hour after being born. Newborn llamas weigh about 10 kg and crias are nursed for four months. Sexual maturity occurs at the age of two years.

Conservation Status

The species not listed in the IUCN Red List.



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