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Animal Detail ViewՄանրամասն` նրանց մասին

23.04.2014

Jaguar (Panthera onca)


Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Carnivora

Family: Felidae

Genus: Panthera

Species: P. onca

Description 

Jaguars are the largest cats in the Americas and the only representative of the genus Panthera. Height at the shoulder may be up to 75 cm. Body length is 150 to 180 cm long with a tail of 70 to 90 cm. Jaguars weigh between 68 and 136 kilograms. Jaguars are powerfully built, with large, square jaws and prominent cheeks. Jaguars have lean bodies and muscular limbs. They are built for power, not speed, although they can run briefly. Base coat colors range from pale yellow to reddish brown, with black, rosette-shaped spots on the neck, body, and limbs. The belly is off white. Black, or melanistic, jaguars are fairly common and are the result of a single, dominant allele. These jaguars have a base coat color of black with black spots that are usually dimly visible against the black background.

Range and Habitat

Jaguars have a large distribution, they are found from southern Arizona and New Mexico south toward northern Argentina and northeastern Brazil.

Jaguars prefer dense, tropical moist lowland forests that offer plenty of cover, although they are also found in scrubland, reed thickets, coastal forests, swamps, and thickets. Jaguars are excellent swimmers and are generally found in habitats near water, such as rivers, slow moving streams, lagoons, watercourses, and swamps.

Behavior

Panthera onca is a solitary animal. Male and female interaction only occurs during mating and the male leaves directly afterwards, leaving the female to raise her young alone. Jaguars are known to be able to survive within a circular territory of three miles in diameter. If food is scarce they will often need to roam over an area of 200 square miles in search of food. Jaguars are rapid runners, but tire quickly, and can climb trees well. They are also proficient swimmers and prefer areas with plenty of fresh water.

Diet

Jaguars are strictly carnivores. They eat a wide variety of prey, over 85 species have been reported in the diet of jaguars. Preferred prey are large animals, such as peccaries, tapirs, and deer. They also prey on caimans, turtles, snakes, porcupines, capybaras, fish, large birds, and many other animals.

Reproduction

The jaguar reaches sexual maturity at 3 years of age. It engages in non-seasonal mating in the tropical regions while in the extremes of the range the mating season is during early autumn. A mother gives birth to 1-4 cubs annually. Gestation lasts from 93-110 days. The cubs are blind at birth and do not leave the den for two weeks. They learn how to hunt after six months and stay with their mother for up to two years. The lifespan of the jaguar is 22 years.

Conservation Status

The species listed in the IUCN Red List and evaluated as Near Threatened.

 



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